Proteus flowers Proteus
The Order Proteales consists of two or three families (depending on learned opinion).

Family Proteaceae, a Southern Hemisphere family, is best known for large, dense, showy flower heads found in upscale flower arrangements, and for shrubs with bright red, white or yellow "bottle brush" flowers. They are also important nectar producers in Australia and New Zealand (where the most spectacular versions grow) and South America. A couple Genera produce edible nuts of commercial importance.

Family Nelumbonaceae, a Northern Hemisphere family, contains only the Genus Nelumbo, with only two species, yet it is of great culinary interest - the Lotus family.

Family Platanaceae, if you separate it out from Proteaceae, contains Northern Hemisphere trees called Sycamores in North America and Plane Trees everywhere else. They have no culinary importance.


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Gevuina avellana   -   [Chilean hazel, Avellano Chileno (Spanish), Gevuina avellana]
Leaves & Berries

Native to Chili and Argentina this evergreen tree bears bright red berries that turn black when ripe. The seeds are eaten raw or toasted and yield a cooking oil high in monounsaturated oils (similar to olive oil) with a high concentration of antioxidants, vitamin E and Omega 7. It is also much used by the pharmaceutical industry in sunscreens and cosmetics. While it grows well in California and the Pacific Northwest, commercial production comes mainly from South America, but New Zealand is now ramping up to become a significant producer. Photo by Franz Xaver distributed under GNU Free Documentation License..

Macadamia   -   [Macadamia Nut, Poppel Nut, Bauple Nut, Bopple Nut, Bush Nut, Maroochi nut, Kindal kindal (indigenous), Queensland Nut, Macadamia tetraphylla, Macadamia integrifolia] Nuts on tree

This tree is native to Australia but best known to Americans from Hawaii where large commercial crops were first grown. These nuts are now also grown commercially in California, Africa, South America, Israel, Costa Rica and New Zealand.

Macadamias remain a high priced nut because they are very difficult to shell on a production scale. I shell them by dropping a nut into my big Thai granite mortar and hitting it with the heavy pestle. This way the shells don't fly everywhere. The oil is prized by the pharmaceutical industry due to it's 22% content of Omega-7 palmitoleic acid which makes it particularly good for skin care products.   Photo © i0128 .

Lotus   -   [Nelumbo nucifera, Sacred Lotus] [Nelumbo lutea, American Lotus, Yellow Lotus, Water-chinquapin]
Lotus leaves, flowers

Native to a vast area stretching from Afghanistan to Vietnam, the Asian Lotus has been an important source of food throughout it's entire range since prehistoric times. It has since been carried to all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Flowers, seeds, leaves and rhizomes (roots) are all edible and popular throughout India, East Asia and Southeast Asia.   Photo © i0138 .

The American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) is similarly edible to the Asian species and was a significant native food resource into Colonial times. It is indigenous to the southeastern U.S., Mexico, Honduras and the West Indies but has been dispersed farther by humans.

The Lotus was unknown in Egypt until the Persian invasion. The "sacred lotus" of ancient Egypt was instead the blue water lily Nymphaea caerulea. Lotus and Water Lily are frequently confused but the plants are actually pretty easy to tell apart. Water lily leaves have a deep notch from the edge all the way in to the stem and they always float on the water surface. Lotus leaves are fully circular with stems in the center, no notch, and generally stand proud of the water surface (see photo to left). Flowers of both are similar and both are noted for mild psychoactive and anesthetic properties. Water lily plants are not so edible and may be toxic.
Details and Cooking.

Wild Almond   -   [Bitter almond; Ghoeboontjie; Ghoekoffie, Bitteramandel (Afrikaans); Brabejum stellatifolium] Nuts on tree

Not a real Almond, this low spreading tree is native to the west coast of South Africa. The fruits look much like almonds, but are laced with lethal amounts of bitter prussic acid. While sometimes called "bitter almond", it is not to be confused with the bitter almond of commerce, which is just a high cyanide variety of the regular almond.

Toxicity did not keep these seeds from being eaten. The Hottentots soaked and roasted the seed kernels to drive off the toxins, and did the same with roots, which are very high in cyanide. The early Dutch settlers similarly soaked the seed kernels and roasted them to make a coffee substitute. Porcupines, an important food animal in South Africa, feast on these seeds.   Photo by Andrew Massyn contributed to the Public Domain .

pr_proteus 080203   -   www.clovegarden.com
©Andrew Grygus - agryg@clovegaden.com - Photos on this page not otherwise credited are © cg1 - Linking to and non-commercial use of this page permitted