Melons are all "Cucumbers" (Cucurbits or Cucurbitaceae) to
the botanist, along with squash, gourds and actual cucumbers. To the
agriculturist they are are all "vine crops". All are technically "fruit" but
in culinary practice all are treated as "vegetables" except the melons which
are treated as fruit.
General & History
There are two broad categories of melon and one odd one.
Melons are generally eaten mature when the flesh becomes sweet, which contrasts with gourds, squash and cucumbers which are eaten immature. The rind is tough but not hard and the flesh is always watery. Most are eaten raw but some are cooked, particularly in soup. Most have thick walls and a hollow center containing seeds, but the Watermelons are solid and uniform all the way through with seeds embedded in the flesh. Most melons will store at room temperature maybe a week and not much longer refrigerated, but there are a few, such as the Hami and Christmas melons that will store much longer at room temperature.
All Melons (with the exception of Watermelons) are of the same species, C. melo, so can be interbred to create new varieties. There are, however, several recognized C. melo varietal groups.
Afghan Melon -
This melon is similar to the Persian Melon
but greener with rather sparser netting. They are only moderately sweet
so should be selected with a fair amount of flex at the flower end to
assure ripeness. I haven't seen these for awhile, but they're sure to
become more common in the future. When the U.S. pulls the troupes out of
Afghanistan anyone who cooperated will have to leave the country and
they'll head straight for Los Angeles where every other ethnic group
has settled. Soon they'll be opening restaurants and demanding Afghan
melons in the markets.
Ananas Melon -
[Middle Eastern melon]
Armenian Cucumber -
[Snake Cucumber / Melon, Uri (Japan), Metki, Mikti (Near East), Wild
Cucumber (commercial), Cucumis melo var. flexuosus]
Market size varies widely from 6 inches long and 1-1/4 inches diameter to 21 inches long and 2-1/2 inches diameter but they can grow to a yard long and over 3 inches in diameter. They are very much like a cucumber in structure and in taste, if raw. The skin is very thin and tender and is almost never peeled. Smaller sizes are often pickled and the resulting pickles have a rather different flavor from cucumber pickles.
Armenian cucumbers are seasonally available fresh in Southern
California (May to July) and are grown as a garden vegetable in Florida
and other suitable areas, but I understand they're almost impossible to
find fresh in Armenia. Pickled they can be found in any market serving
a Western Asian or Near Eastern community. They're usually packed in
Lebanon or surrounding regions and labeled "Mikti" or "Wild Cucumber".
The front photo specimen was 12 inches long (uncut), 2 inches diameter
and weighed 14-5/8 ounces. The middle one was 14-1/2 inches long (if
straight) 1-3/4 inches diameter and weighed 10-1/8 ounces
Details and Cooking.
Canary Melon -
[Juan Canary, Jaune des Canaries, Amarillo, PLU #4317, C. melo
This bright yellow mellon, oblong and pointy at the ends like an
American football, is now grown by the truck load in California. A fully
ripe Canary is about as sweet as melons get. The flesh is firm, almost
crisp, white to faintly greenish, and light pink or orange around the
seed cavity. Select melons that are bright yellow and springy at the
flower end but not mushy. This melon is a yellow variety of the
Piel de Sapo, a melon popular in Spain. The photo
specimen was 9 inches long, 6 inches diameter and weighed 5 pounds 7 ounces.
[Orange Flesh Melon, Kandy Melon, PLU #4327]
This cross between a cantaloupe and a honeydew has been grown more
in South America than in North America, but is becoming more available
here. It's marketed as "Orange Flesh Melon" and "Kandy Melon". The flesh
tastes similar to cantaloupe, is firm, almost crisp, and quite sweet right
to the thin rind. The rind is smooth with some scattered netting and when
ripe becomes quite pale, sometimes almost white. Also look for some
springiness at the flower end. The photo specimen was 6 inches diameter
and weighed 3 pound 13 ounces.
The true Cantaloupe is seldom grown outside southern Europe,
mostly Italy. Unlike the Muskmelon the skin is hard, deeply grooved,
warty and lacks the orderly netting of the Muskmelons. See
Dulcinea "Tuscan Style" Cantaloupe and
Muskmelon for melons available in North America.
The common market "Cantaloupe" in the U.S. is actually a Muskmelon,
not a True Cantaloupe. I realize the entire fruit
and grocery industries go along with calling it "cantaloupe", but I'm
going to call it a Muskmelon anyway - and
besides, that's what my Connecticut based family called it when I was a
Cantaloupe - Athena
A specialty of Dulcinea Farms in California - it is, of course, a
Muskmelon, not a true Cantaloupe.
Casaba Melon -
[PLU #4320, C. melo (Inodorus group)]
This fairly large mellon (4 to 10 pounds) has a wrinkly skin and is usually flat at the flower end and with a point where the stem attaches. The white to slightly yellow flesh has little flavor and is only lightly sweet when the melon is fully ripe. It ripens unevenly, very soft near the seeds and still rather firm near the rind. Personally, I don't see the point of this melon since sweeter, more flavorful melons are available at the same price per pound.
Casabas are ripe when the flower end has plenty of give but is still
springy. This melon has no odor so that isn't an indicator of ripeness,
and it does not slip when ripe so stems or stem tears are not an
indicator it was picked too soon. The photo specimen was 8-1/2 inches
diameter, 7-1/2 inches long and weighed 9 pounds 3 ounces. The Casaba
melons originated in western Asia and in the U.S. is grown mainly in
A French variety of the True Cantaloupe from the town of Cavaillon.
It is considered very highly for flavor and is now grown in various places
around the world including the USA. Some are grown in California but I
have yet to see them in the markets - they probably all go to the fancy
chef set. The flesh is a light orange and they are said to be ripe when
a small crack appears at the stem end.
Charentais Melon -
[French Breakfast Melon, Chaca, Italian Melon, French Kiss
(marketing); Hakucho (Japan); Cantalupensis group]
This is a small European melon, globe shaped with a smooth to slightly netted gray, gray-blue or yellow-green rind with distinct but shallow sutures. Flesh color ranges from greenish to intense orange depending on cultivar. Some sources say if the color of the rind becomes yellowish they are over-ripe, but, again, that seems to vary with cultivar - these were just about perfect.as shown.
This is an aromatic melon with flesh that's exceptionally sweet right
out to the very thin rind. Flavor is quite attractive and somewhat lighter
than cantaloupe. This is the favorite melon of the French, who commonly
use it as a breakfast melon. Cut in half it will serve two. They also
split them in half, scoop them out and fill with a sweet wine such as
Marsala or Madeira to serve as an appetizer. The larger of the photo
specimens (the cut one) was 5 inches diameter and 2 pounds 3-1/4 ounces.
Christmas Melon -
[Santa Claus, Inodorus group]
These 5 to 8 pound football (US) shaped melons have a mottled
yellow or green rind and pale green or pale orange flesh depending on
variety. The photo specimen was 8-3/4 inches long, 6 inches diameter and
weighed 5 pounds. They are very sweet when ripe and are similar to
Piel de Sapo with some varieties looking very much
like that melon but others are smoother and some have a little or a lot
of netting as in the photo. These melons get the name Christmas or Santa
Claus from their late season harvest excellent keeping properties - even
to Christmas if stored in a cool place.
Citron Melon -
[Pie melon (U.S.), Tsanna Citrullus lanatus var.
This melon is thought to be ancestral to the Watermelon and originated in Africa. It now grows wild in Baja California though no one knows how it got there. It is also both cultivated and considered a weed in much of the Southern U.S. though rarely in pure form there due to accidental cross breeding with commercial watermelons.
This melon is not to be confused with the citrus fruit
Citron, though they are both used mainly
candied or as preserves and pickles. Citron melon is very high in pectin
so is a desirable ingredient for preserves. The flesh is much stiffer and more
strongly flavored than that of watermelon.
Details & Cooking.
Collective Farm Woman Melon
Crenshaw Melon -
[Cranshaw, C. melo (Inodorus group)]
This is a hybrid between the Casaba and Persian melons that weighs in
at 5 pounds or higher. It is a bit flattened at the stem end giving it an
acorn shape. The skin, though still wrinkly is a bit smoother than the
Casaba. Yellow when ripe, older varieties have green flesh and newer ones
have salmon pink flesh.
An Israeli melon with a netted rind similar to a
Muskmelon but paler in color and not as distinctly
netted. It is a cross of Cantaloupe and Honeydew. The flesh is pale
green to white, similar to a Honeydew, and has a
banana like aroma. These slip their stems when ripe so any stem or
stem tears indicate picking before fully ripe. They are now common in
Southern California, grown here, in the U.S. South and in South and
Gaya Melon There are several varieties of Gaya mellon, so different from each other you would wonder why they have the same name. The two here are the most available, and both are most likely to be found in Asian markets.
Gallicum - see Ogen Melon.
These were sold not quite ripe with crisp, moderately sweet flesh, as
would be expected for a pickling melon. The flesh becomes soft and almost
crumbly when fully ripe, with just a touch of crispness near the peel.
Even fully ripe the flesh is only moderately sweet and the flavor is a
Hami Melon -
They are generally football (US) shaped with a yellow-green lightly
to only vaguely netted rind and orange, salmon, white or green flesh. The
flesh is distinguished by being fairly crisp, even brittle, and most are
just medium sweet. The flesh freezes well so they are good for frozen
deserts. Hamis keep well and will store for a couple of weeks or more at
a cool room temperature.
Japanese Melon -
[ reticulatus group]
A round to slightly oval melon with strong netting on a green rind.
They are generally 3 to 4 pounds with very sweet white to green flesh.
In Japan these are very expensive "gift melons" selling for around US $100
each. They are hothouse grown with controlled heat to assure highest
possible sweetness, and then expensively packaged. These melons don't
slip, but stem tears would be unthinkable, so they are normally sold with
a piece of the vine still attached. Young melons are sometimes scratched
to produce scars if the netting pattern needs a little filling out. In
California these melons could be field grown, but nobody seems to bother.
Bobak Ha'Eri distributed under
Attribution-Share Alike 2.5.
Kiwano - [#4302,
Horned Melon, Melano, Horned Cucumber, Jelly melon, English tomato,
Metulon (France), Cucumis metuliferus]
This odd African melon is grown in the Kenya, Israel, New Zealand and the U.S. as a decorative fruit and in Australia as a noxious weed. Now grown commercially in California they have a long shelf life and are easily shipped so you will find a few in supermarkets but often at prices that will leave you gasping. The photo specimen was 4-3/4 inches long, 2.8 inches diameter and weighed 11-3/4 ounces, from a small chain supermarket for $2.99 each or $4.07 / pound. Major supermarkets may charge as much as $4.99 per melon.
They are sold mainly as a curiosity and are not expected to be a
viable food crop until varieties with a higher sugar content are
developed. Currently they have a light refreshing flavor but are not
real sweet. It's the seed mass you eat as there is very little edible
flesh inside the hard rind. Note: seed merchants are also selling
purely decorative varieties which look about the same but are very
toxic. You won't eat those by accident because the toxin is extremely
bitter. Details and Cooking
Korean Melon -
[Yellow melon, Oriental melon; Yeoncheon, Dua Gan, Cha Mae, Chamoe
(Korea); Huangjingua, Tian Gua (China); Makuwa (Japan); Dura Gan
(Vietnam); Cucumis melo var. makuwa]
This small bright yellow melon with shallow light yellow sutures is commonly found in Chinese and Korean markets. The photo specimen was typical at 1 pound 1-1/4 ounces, 4-1/2 inches long and 3.5/8 inches diameter. It was purchased from a large Asian market in Los Angeles (San Gabriel) for 2016 US $1.79 / pound. The most perfect ones are sold in Korean markets at a significantly higher price.
The crisp flesh of this melon is white to pale peach and moderately
sweet. The rind is very thin and doesn't need to be peeled, though it
commonly is peeled. The seeds very small and soft, and the seed mass is
always eaten with the flesh as it is by far the sweetest part. In Korea
there are many varieties, and many are pickled, or even made into
kimchee. Only the sweetest varieties are marketed in North America, but
they can still be pickled. This is a perishable melon and should be
eaten within 5 days of purchase.
Korean Melon -
[Hybrid Golden Honey]
A hybrid recently developed in Korea, this ia a round to slightly oval
smooth yellow skinned melon often found in Korean markets. These are
"gift melons", carefully grown to be blemish free and even in California
sell for around $2/pound when in season. The photo example weighed 2-1/4
pounds. The stem does not slip so some stem is included (a stem tear would
be an unacceptable blemish). The flesh is a very pale yellow-orange to
white, fairly crisp and quite sweet. They are ripe when there is some
springiness at the flower end. See also the sutured
Korean Melon, also commonly found in Korean
[Cantaloupe (North America), reticulatus group]
Ogen Melon -
Orange Flesh Melon - see Cantaline Melon.
Of course in Asia these melons are very carefully grown to make sure
appearance is perfect, because the two most potent flavor enhancements
used in Asia are perfect appearance and an absurdly high price. The photo
specimen was 5-3/4 inches long, 4 inches diameter and 1 pound 9-3/4
Persian Melon -
Similar in appearance to a Muskmelon but larger
(generally around 5 pounds) with sparser netting over a greener background.
There are also more spherical varieties but the elongated variety is the
one most grown and sold in Southern California. The pink-orange flesh is
somewhat milder than Muskmelon. Unlike Muskmelons the Persian does not
slip it's stem when ripe, so a bit of stem or stem tears do not mean it
was picked too green.
Piel de Sapo -
[Toad Skin Melon, C. melo (Indorus group)]
The name, literally "toad skin", describes the green and yellow blotched coloration and bumpy texture of these melons. They may be lightly and randomly sutured - or not. It is a very popular melon in Spain and grown in Central and South America for export to Spain in the off season, but is only just beginning to appear in other European markets. Some are now grown in Arizona, Colorado and California but they are not yet common here. Similar Spanish melons are the Rochet and Tendral, while this general type of melon is represented in North America more by a yellow version, the Canary Melon and by the late season Christmas Melon.
The photo specimen was 8 inches long, 5 inches diameter and weighed
4 pounds 7-3/4 ounces. The flesh is firm and fairly sweet, shading from
green at the rind to slightly orange near the seeds. The rind is about
1/4 inch thick, and the seed cavity is small but packed tightly with
seeds. These are long lived melons - both the whole and cut ones sat on
my kitchen floor for about 2 months without any sign of degradation.
Red Moon Melon
Santa Claus Melon - see Christmas Melon.
Sharlynne Melon - [PLU #4338]
In appearance it looks like an elongated orange musk melon but the
flesh inside is light yellow-green and tastes more like a bland but fairly
sweet honeydew. The flesh ranges from very soft in the center to firm at
the rind. They are ripe when the background color turns from green to
light orange and there is some give at the flower end. Also check the
stem end because that's where they often start to rot. They are extremely
perishable keeping for only a few days once ripe. The seed mass of a ripe
melon is often completely liquid and can be poured out. The photo
specimen was 4 pounds 5 ounces, 8 inches long and 5-1/2 inches diameter
- a bit more elongated than most.
Sugar Kiss Melon
This is a new, proprietary variety of melon. The photo example
was 5 inches diameter and weighed 2 pounds 4-1/4 ounces. It is a cross
between Galia and Charentias melons, with faintly greenish color, faint
netting and very faint sutures. This melon has soft, deep orange
flesh which tastes pretty much like sugar water. The melon flavor is as
faint as the netting and sutures. This is typical of what melon growers
are doing. Their industrial farming methods don't produce flavorful
melons, so they keep increasing the sugar content in hopes nobody will
notice. This melon is ready to eat when the flower end has an obvious
amount of give under moderate pressure.
These melons have started to appear in Los Angeles markets serving
a heavily Vietnamese community. They vary quite a lot in pattern and
coloration but all are quite cylindrical and lightly sutured. The photo
specimen was purchased in mid July from the Hawaii Supermarket in
Alhambra. It weighed just under 4 pounds 5 ounces and was 8-1/2 inches
long and 4-1/2 inches diameter. This appears to be a cooking melon. Fully
ripe the flesh was still firm and not very sweet, but it did have a light
but interesting flavor and stayed firm enough for soup when simmered.
Watermelons originated in southern Africa but were already grown as a crop in Egypt 5000 years ago and are now planted throughout the world. China got them in the 10th century CE and is now the largest producer. They were brought to North America in the 16th century where California, Georgia, Arizona and Texas are the major producers.
Watermelon fruit is unlike the Cucumus melons of Western Asia in that they are not hollow in the center but have a uniform pulp throughout. Many sizes have been developed (the examples here are 22 pounds for the large and 3-3/4 pounds for the small) and a number of colors. Yellow and white are fine for decorative accents, but as usual I recommend the standard red color as the best tasting,
Seedless Watermelons are not actually without seeds, but the seeds are all or mostly immature, white and very soft when the melon is ripe. Making a seedless watermelon is quit a feat of genetic engineering, but personally I don't see the point - I've always just swallowed the seeds anyway so they don't bother me. I find the standard watermelon to have better flavor and texture than the manipulated ones.
The ancestral Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var citroides),
known as the Citron Melon, is still extant and is now
wild in Southern and Baja California, though nobody knows how it got there.
The white flesh is so firm it's sort of "rind all the way through" but its
high pectin content makes it popular for preserves.
Details and Cooking.
Not a melon - see Ash Gourd.
Melons are non-toxic, non-fat and low in calories, but due to their very high water content they have modest nutritional value. Orange fleshed melons are fairly high in vitamin A, some rating even USDA "Excellent Source", and also foliate and potassium. Green or white fleshed melons provide little but potassium.
Melons need almost no digestion. Eaten on an empty stomach they will go on through immediately. On two occasions, to test reports that scientists had found a Viagra-like substance in watermelon, I ate an entire 12 pound watermelon in one sitting. This is not difficult for me because once I start on a watermelon I just can't stop. I'll eat until I'm in pain, then lie down until I can eat more.
No Viagra-like effect whatever was observed (and in one case I ate the rind out to the peel in case it was there), but It did sweep my guts absolutely bright sparkling clean.